热门标签:代写本科论文 写作发表 工程师论文 代写一篇论文多少钱
当前位置: 代写一篇论文多少钱 > 代写硕士论文 > 黎锦扬《花鼓歌》中华裔人物正面形象塑造研究

黎锦扬《花鼓歌》中华裔人物正面形象塑造研究

时间:2019-06-12 14:54作者:李景媛
本文导读:这是一篇关于黎锦扬《花鼓歌》中华裔人物正面形象塑造研究的文章,20 世纪 80 年代,文学语用学这个介于语用学和文学之间的新兴交叉学科开始正式登上学术舞台。文学语用学将语用学与文学研究相结合,从语用学的角度来研究文学作品,它的兴起引起了文学界与语言学界广泛关注。
  摘 要
  
  20 世纪 80 年代,文学语用学这个介于语用学和文学之间的新兴交叉学科开始正式登上学术舞台。文学语用学将语用学与文学研究相结合,从语用学的角度来研究文学作品,它的兴起引起了文学界与语言学界广泛关注。语用学理论不仅为文学作品研究提供新的研究视角,而且具有很强的阐释性。
  
  在语用学的主要理论中,语言哲学家格赖斯提出的会话含义理论是极为重要的理论之一;这一理论与言语行为理论堪称是语用学发展的里程碑。根据格赖斯的观点,在人类交际中“会话含义”普遍存在,其理据是交际双方对合作原则的遵守与否。可以说,合作原则是格赖斯提出会话含义理论的核心内容。本文试图从文学语用学的角度运用会话含义理论中的合作原则来解读由“黎氏八骏”之一的华裔美国作家黎锦扬所着的小说《花鼓歌》。本文将沿着合作原则对说话者意图的揭示反映了人物性格特征并塑造了人物形象这一主线对这部小说进行研究,通过本研究,作者拟进一步证明运用文学语用学这门新兴学科的理论与方法来分析文学文本的意义和有效性,同时证明从文学语用学的视角更能彰显小说作者黎锦扬对《花鼓歌》里华裔人物形象正面塑造的意图,从而证明该作品在逆转先前华裔负面形象的过程中所起到的积极作用。

黎锦扬《花鼓歌》中华裔人物正面形象塑造研究
  
  文学作品中的人物形象丰满与否,直接取决于每一个人物个性化的语言。鉴于此,本文以文学语用学为研究视野,运用会话含义理论分别对《花鼓歌》中主要男性华裔人物:王老爷、王大、张灵羽、李老头,和主要女性华裔人物:李梅、唐太太、赵海伦的大量经典对话进行了微观研究。通过分析小说各主要华裔人物在对话中对合作原则中数量准则、质量准则、关系准则及方式准则的遵守和违反情况,总结了他(她)们各自的性格特点,从而得出了这些人物都是黎锦扬对华裔形象的正面塑造的结论。
  
  通过运用会话含义理论中的合作原则对小说中华裔人物性格的分析,本文旨在阐明黎锦扬在《花鼓歌》中对华裔人物形象的正面书写既是他对美国主流文化中华人既定刻板负面形象的隐性辩白,也是他反驳美国主流文化庞大霸权话语的一种特殊而有力的方式。以此,笔者希望本研究能够拓展对《花鼓歌》的批评维度,并期待中国读者能够更好地解读和欣赏这部曾经“被遗忘的经典”华裔文学着作,了解其在颠覆主流话语和重塑华人形象方面的重要作用。
  
  关键词:  文学语用学;合作原则;《花鼓歌》;华裔;正面形象。
  
  Abstract
  
  In the 1980s, as a new interdisciplinary subject, Literary Pragmatics emerged integrating pragmatic theories with literary theories. It studies literary works from the perspective of pragmatic theories, which has aroused great interest both in literature and linguistics. Literary Pragmatics not only provides a new perspective for literary study, but also has a strong interpretation of literary texts.
  
  Conversational Implicature proposed by the linguistic philosopher Paul Grice in 1975 is one of fundamental theories in pragmatics, and along with speech act theory,it marks the milestone in the development of Pragmatics as well. Conversational implicatures are engendered by either directly observing or ostentatiously flouting the maxims of Cooperative Principle according to Grice. Cooperative Principle reveals speakers’ implied meanings so that it reflects the characteristics of the speakers and then shapes images of the speakers. In terms of Cooperative Principle, this thesis tries to interpret The Flower Drum Song, which was written by the Chinese American writer, C. Y. (Chin Yang) Lee, one of “The Lee’s Eight Elites”, to further prove the significance and effectiveness of Literary Pragmatics on studying literary texts. And it also manifests the great effects that the positive images of Lee’s novel exerted inchanging the stereotypes of Chinese Americans before.
  
  “Whether the images are life-like or not is determined by the verbalization of literary characters.” Hence, according to Cooperative Principle in the theory of Conversational Implicature, the thesis respectively analyzes the great amount of typical conversations of the male and the female Chinese Americans in the novel. The main male Chinese Americans are Old Master Wang, Wang Ta, Chang Ling-yu and Old Man Li, and the main female Chinese Americans include May Li, Madam Tang and Helen Chao. Based on their observing or flouting the four maxims of Quantity,Quality, Relation and Manner in Cooperative Principle, this thesis explores the characteristics of the Chinese Americans in order to show that Lee’s characters in The Flower Drum Song are his creation for the brand-new positive images of Chinese Americans.
  
  Above all, by analyzing the Chinese Americans’ conversations with the four maxims of Cooperative Principle, the thesis aims to prove that Lee’s creation for these positive images in the novel implicitly refutes the depictions of the stereotypes of Chinese Americans before. Forming these positive images is also a kind of special but powerful writing against the hegemony discourse in the mainstream culture of America. It is no wonder that The Flower Drum Song is called as the “forgotten novel with the world-famous title”.
  
  Keywords:   Literary Pragmatics; Cooperative Principle; The Flower Drum Song; Chinese Americans; positive image。
  
  Chapter 1 Introduction
 
  
  1.1 Research Background。
  
  1.1.1 An Introduction to C. Y. Lee & The Flower Drum Song。
  

  The Chinese American writer C. Y. Lee, one of “The Lee’s Eight Elites”, was born in a family of academics in Hunan, China, in 1917. He received his B.A. from the National Southwest Associated University, Kunming, China, in 1940. He came to the United States in 1943 and attended Yale University, graduating in 1947 with his M.F.A. in playwriting. In San Francisco, he worked as city editor for the newspapers Chinese World and Young China, as well as a feature program writer for Radio Free Asia. Lee has published a number of novels, and his stories and articles have appeared in The New Yorker, Theatre Arts, Writer’s Digest, and Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine, among others. He has worked as a scriptwriter for Twentieth Century Fox.His honors include a California Commonwealth Club Gold Medal Fiction Award, a San Francisco Press Club and Union League Annual Award, a Writer’s Guild Annual Award for Writing Achievement, a Box Office Blue Ribbon Award, and the key to the City of San Francisco. A C. Y. Lee Archive has been established at Boston University’s Mugar Memorial Library.
  
  The Flower Drum Song, which was published in 1957, attracted so many readers in English world and made the author of the novel well-known in Western literaryworld. C. Y. Lee has abundant works, but it was his first work and masterpiece, The Flower Drum Song, that brought him great fame as well as controversy.
  
  This novel told a story about China Town of San Francisco in the early 1950s,and it had three inter-developing clues. The first clue was the conflict between the father, Wang Chi-yang, and his two sons, especially between him and his elder son,Wang Ta. The second clue was Wang Ta’s love affaires and marriage — his emotional entanglements with three Chinese American girls in China Town: Linda Tung, Helen Chao and May Li. And the third clue was the hardships that Wang Ta had to face with as he went into the American society.
  
  Based on the life experience of a traditional Chinese-American family, The Flower Drum Song not only presented the collision and the friction between Chinaand West, the two distinct cultures, but also expressed the hardships and the confusion that were faced by those Chinese Americans in the intersection of the two cultures.What’s more, the novel revealed the great changes in moral ideas of Chinese Americans in an alien environment.
  
  1.1.2 Stereotype Images of Chinese Americans before The Flower Drum Song。
  
  Characters are the persons represented in a dramatic or narrative work. Their images are interpreted by the readers as being endowed with particular moral,intellectual, and emotional qualities by inferences from what the persons say and their distinctive ways of saying it — the dialogue — and from what they do — the action.
  
  Image means the impression that a person, an organization or a product, etc. gives to the public. It is a mental picture that you have of what somebody / something is like or looks like.Hence, the images of literary characters are very important for every country in the world. Therefore, the elements of a character’s image include characteristics, inner spirit, values, conception of life, and external performance, such as clothing, behaviors, remarks and habits. Meanwhile, the interpersonal relationships and the social role(s) of a character are also the essential parts to form the character’s image.
  
  In the mainstream culture of America, the caricatures of oriental stereotypes have been deeply rooted for generations. For the historical context, we should go back to 1882, when the U.S. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which prohibited immigration to America from China. Since then, the mass media of America started to defame and vilify the Chinese Americans wantonly. In 1881, the words attached to a caricature that smeared the Chinese Americans in The Wasp magazine said that: they were as same as the brutal Mongolians, usually performed monkey see, monkey do, and, always grinned slyly. The media declared that Chinese culture was inferior;Chinese had bizarre figures, depraved morality, and they carried deadly bacterium.Chinese people had evolved from monkey and would evolve into pig.
  
  The idea of the “Yellow Peril”in the 13th century sprang up again all over the America. And the image of Chinese was a terrible people who was in rags, but had the feet on white people’s body, while holding opium pipe in his hands.The image of Chinese people at that time was ugly, weak, dirty, coward and sly,having the habits of stealing, fighting, gambling, whoring and smoking opium. In his Last Days of Republic, P. W. Dooner made up the history of Chinese immigration. He depicted the weak and incompetent Qing government as a powerful one that had ulterior motives to conquer the U.S And it said the Chinese are obedient and lack of curiosity. In R. Woltor’s A Short and Truthful History of the Taking of Oregon and California, the Chinese military leader Prince Tsa Fungyan was described as the Satan by Milton. Jake London’s The Unparalleled Invasion predicated Chinese would invade the western world and he advocated wipe out all of the Chinese people. C. W.
  
  Doyle’s The Shadow of Quong Lung created the image of criminal leader in Chinatown who graduated from Yale University. And it was this image that providedthe prototype of the notorious Fu Manchu.
  
  In short, on the one hand, the stereotypes of the male Chinese Americans were “Yellow Peril” and “Model Minority” in the mainstream of American culture. The earliest image of Chinese American was Ah Sin who was written by Mark Twain and Bret Harte in 1877. Ah Sin was depicted as a fool, sarcomata, pet, monkey, thief and liar.And, the evil genius Fu Machu, which was written by Sax Rohmer, was the symbol of the “Yellow Peril” threat. Rohmer wrote a series of novels about FuManchu. In the first novel of this series in 1913, he described the horrible appearance about Fu Manchou. Doctor Fu Manchu had a Satan-like face and a Shakespeare-like forehead, and, his body assembled all the Chinese cruelty and slyness. In a word, he was a totally horrible monster. Besides, from 1925 to 1932, E. D. Biggers wrote six Chalie Chan series novels. Completely dissimilar to the evil and uncontrollable Fu Manchu, Chalie Chan, a Chinese American detective, was the result of “racist love”for the Americans which the white adopts to set an example for other minorities in America. Biggers portrayed Chalie Chan as a wise, pleasant, fat, short, kind, shrewd,but docile and humble symbol of the Chinese Americans. Therefore, from then on, the images of the male Chinese Americans had almost fixed on the two extremes between the stereotyped “Yellow Peril” and “Model Minority”.
  
  On the other hand, the stereotypes of the female Chinese Americans were “Lotus Blossom” and “Dragon Lady”in American popular culture. In The Toll of the Sea,Lotus, the Chinese American heroine, did the same thing as Madame Butterfly: she sacrificed her own life for the “love” of a western man. In 1927, Old San Francisco,created several female Chinese Americans as the prostitutes who had the manners of promiscuity. And the female Chinese Americans were portrayed as the sex slaves who had severe and terrible destructive power for the western men.
  
  In The Daughter of Fu Manchu, one of the Fu Manchu novels, Rohmer created the terrible female leader of the Chinese American, Fah Lo Suee. She was the daughter of Fu Manchu who struggled against the white people instead of her father. She was exotic, licentious and sly. And these three basic characteristics had been used in depicting the female Chinese Americans in the media of America until 1970’s. In addition, the “Dragon Lady” in Milton Caniff’s Terry and the Pirates and Daughter of the Dragon, was another female Chinese American with the typical image who had those three bad characteristics. Hence, the images of female Chinese Americans had been fixed on the two stereotypes of the “Lotus Blossom” and the “Dragon Lady” for many decades.
  
  【由于本篇文章为硕士论文,如需全文请点击底部下载全文链接】
  
  1.2 Research Purpose
  1.3 Research Questions.
  1.4 Structure of the Thesis
  
  Chapter 2 Literature Review
  
  2.1 International Studies.
  2.1.1 International Studies on LP & CP
  2.1.2 International Studies on the Chinese American Literature & The Flower Drum Song
  2.2 Domestic Studies.
  2.2.1 Domestic Studies on LP& CP .
  2.2.2  Domestic  Studies  on  the  Chinese  American  Literature  &  The  Flower Drum Song
  2.3 Critical Comments.
  
  Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework .
  
  3.1 A Brief Introduction to Literary Pragmatics
  3.2 Conversational Implicature .
  3.3 Cooperative Principle
  3.3.1 Conversational Maxims in CP
  3.3.2 Flouting the Maxims of CP
  
  Chapter  4  Exemplified  Analyses  of  the  Chinese  Americans’  Positive  Images  in  The Flower Drum Song
  
  4.1 Positive Images Generated by Uncooperativeness and Cooperativeness
  4.1.1 Flouting and Observing the Quantity Maxim in CP
  4.1.1.1 Male Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.1.1.2 Female Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.1.2 Flouting and Observing the Quality Maxim in CP
  4.1.2.1 Male Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.1.2.2 Female Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.1.3 Flouting and Observing the Relation Maxim in CP
  4.1.3.1 Male Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.1.3.2 Female Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.1.4 Flouting and Observing the Manner Maxim in CP
  4.1.4.1 Male Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.1.4.2 Female Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.2 Summary
  4.2.1 Positive Images of Male Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  4.2.2 Positive Images of Female Chinese Americans in The Flower Drum Song
  
  Chapter 5 Conclusion
  
  5.1 Major Findings

  5.2 Limitations and Suggestions for the Further Study

  The present study has contributed to a further appreciation of The Flower Drum Song from the angle of CP in LP. However, there are still some limitations in the study.

  Firstly, since LP is a new interdisciplinary subject, it needs to improve itself and becomes a more formal and scientific subject that contains comprehensive knowledge,categories and methodologies. It is believed that as the integrated development of this new subject, LP will have a broad prospect in appreciating literary works.

  Secondly, because there are very few researches on C. Y. Lee’s The Flower Drum Song both abroad and at home and there are no enough materials that the study can refer to, the analysis in this thesis may not be very thorough. And since this study is just a preliminary research, it should be noticed that although CP discovers the conversational implictures of the characters and it is feasible to study conversations of the characters then interpret the characterization in fictions, other factors, such as clothing and behaviors of the characters in literary works, may be taken into consideration of the characterization as well.

  Thirdly, as this study is confined to the CP theory alone, there’s no doubt that it leaves space for other Literary Pragmatic theories, such as Politeness Principle,Speech Act Theory, Relevance Theory and so on, for the future studies on The Flower Drum Song.

  In a word, the author of this thesis hopes that, as an Asian American classic that represents a major achievement in American literature, The Flower Drum Song can once again enrich the bookshelves in China, for people to study, discover, evaluate and appreciate its value and significance.

  Bibliography

  Publications

点击下载全文
联系我们
  • 写作QQ:79211969
  • 发表QQ:78303642
  • 服务电话:18930620780
  • 售后电话:18930493766
  • 邮箱:lunwen021@163.com
网站地图 | 网站介绍 | 联系我们 | 服务承诺| 服务报价| 论文要求 | 期刊发表 | 服务流程