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维权过度是否构成犯罪探析

时间:2018-12-15 10:37作者:曼切
本文导读:这是一篇关于维权过度是否构成犯罪探析的文章,在对过度维权行为进行认定时,折中说的观点较为合适,同时通过对当前司法实践中涉及过度维权行为的部分典型案例及相关数据进行分析,得出我国司法机关在认定维权人构成相关罪名时的缘由及问题。
   篇文章导航:
  
  【题目】维权过度是否构成犯罪探析
  【引言-第一章】过度维权的界定及典型案例分析
  【第二章】过度维权定罪的缘因及分析
  【第三章】国外过度维权刑法规制的借鉴
  【第四章】过度维权行为的刑法界定及规制
  【结语/参考文献】我国过度维权的刑法对策研究结语与参考文献  

  摘  要

  近年来伴随我国法治建设不断发展,涉及过度维权行为的案例也随之增多。在此背景下,对于过度维权行为是否构成犯罪,刑法理论界与我国司法实践均存在不同的态度,由此导致了部分过度维权行为案件出现“同案不同判”的现象。

        在刑法理论界,对于过度维权行为一直存在“有罪说”、“无罪说”及“折中说”三种观点,分别代表了对于过度维权行为的不同处理态度;而在司法实践中,涉及维权过度行为的当事人常会被认定为敲诈勒索罪或寻衅滋事罪,但司法机关在认定过程中往往没有对行为人的维权目的、维权手段及权利主张进行综合考虑,而只是从单个条件的符合性上进行考量,如行为造成的结果、维权目的等,进而认定行为人构成相关的犯罪。

维权过度是否构成犯罪探析

  文章对当前刑法理论界的多种观点进行分析,认为在对过度维权行为进行认定时,折中说的观点较为合适,同时通过对当前司法实践中涉及过度维权行为的部分典型案例及相关数据进行分析,得出我国司法机关在认定维权人构成相关罪名时的缘由及问题。通过列举英美法系国家和大陆法系国家对过度维权行为的规制,进而认为我国未来也可以借鉴域外国家的有益经验,即从维权人主观方面与客观方面进行综合考量,特别是针对维权人的维权手段与维权目的,应当在遵循“刑法谦抑性原则”的基础上建立起统一的司法审查标准,严格入罪的条件。同时,对于己构成犯罪的维权人在相关罪名的量刑上作进一步细化,促使过度维权行为的处理能更好的有法可依,推动相关问题的解决。

  关键词:    过度维权,敲诈勒索罪,寻衅滋事罪,维权目的,维权手段,索赔

  ABSTRACT

  In recent years, along with the economic development of China, the number of cases ofrights-defending behavior has also increased. In this context, whether the excessive rights of rightsconstitute a crime, there are different opinions between the theoretical circles of criminal law and ourjudicial practice, leading to part of the excessive rights protection cases appear “same case differentjudgments” phenomenon.

  There are three viewpoints in the theoretical circle of criminal law, “guilty”, “innocent” and“compromise”, which represent the different handling attitudes towards excessive rights. They representdifferent attitudes toward excessively rights-defensive behavior. In judicial practice, the parties involved inthe excessive action of rights often are identified as extortion or provocation, but in the process ofcognizance, the judicial organs often have no comprehensive consideration of the rights, means and claimsof the perpetrator, but only from the conformance of individual pieces, such as behavior, the result, thepurpose of safeguarding rights, and so on, further affirm that the perpetrator constitutes a related crime.

  Based on the analysis of various viewpoints in the current criminal law theoretical circles, it is consideredthat the compromise view is more appropriate when determining excessive rights protection activities. Atthe same time, through the analysis of some typical cases and related data in the current judicial practiceinvolving excessive rights, the reasons and problems of the judicial organs in our country in determiningthe related crimes of the right holders are found. By enumerating the regulation of excessive rightsprotection in common law countries and civil law countries, I believe that our country can learn from othercountries' useful experiences in the future, that is, according to the subjective and objective aspects of therights holders, especially in view of the means of safeguarding the rights of the rights holders and thepurpose of safeguarding their rights, a unified judicial review standard should be established on the basis ofthe principle of “the modesty of criminal law”, and the conditions of the crime should be strictly entered. Atthe same time, the right holders who have constituted a crime are further refined on the sentencing of therelated charges, so that the treatment of excessive right to rights can be better in accordance with the lawand promote the solution of the related problems.
 

        KEY WORDS :    The Excessive Rights Protection, Offence of Extortion by Blackmail, The Crime ofCreating Disturbances , The Purpose of Safeguarding Rights, The Means of Safeguarding Rights ,Claimfor Compensation 

  
  摘 要
  
  ABSTRACT
  
  目 录
  
  引 言
  
  第一章 过度维权的界定及典型案例分析

  
  1.1 过度维权的界定
  1.1.1 过度维权的概念
  1.1.2 过度维权的特点
  
  1.2 当前我国过度维权典型案例及分析
  1.2.1 国内过度维权的典型案例
  1.2.2 相关典型案例分析
  
  1.3 理论界和司法实践对过度维权的态度
  1.3.1 国内刑法理论界对过度维权的观点
  1.3.2 我国司法实践中对过度维权的处理
  
  第二章 过度维权定罪的缘因及分析
  
  2.1 过度维权行为定罪的缘因
  2.1.1 行为人主观上的非法故意
  2.1.2 行为人不正当的维权手段
  2.1.3 行为人过度的权益主张
  
  2.2 过度维权行为定罪中存在的问题.
  2.2.1 行为人不具有非法的故意
  2.2.2 维权施压手段不等同于敲诈勒索罪中的威胁或要挟
  2.2.3 政府不宜认定为敲诈勒索罪的对象
  2.2.4 公民的上访权受法律保护
  
  第三章 国外过度维权刑法规制的借鉴
  
  3.1 英美法系国家对过度维权的刑法规制
  3.1.2 美国
  
  3.2 大陆法系国家对过度维权的刑法规制
  3.2.1 德国
  3.2.2 日本
  
  3.3 国外相关刑法制度对我国的借鉴
  
  第四章 过度维权行为的刑法界定及规制
  

  4.1 过度维权行为定罪应遵循刑法“谦抑性原则”
  
  4.2 过度维权行为罪与非罪的界定
  4.2.1 维权目的的正当性
  4.2.2 维权手段的合法性
  4.2.3 权利主张的合理性
  
  4.3 过度维权行为的刑法规制
  4.3.1 立法层面增设胁迫罪
  4.3.2 司法上统一其入罪审查标准
  4.3.3 合理其量刑幅度
  
  结 语
  
  参考文献


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